Dr. Jonathan Y. Tan

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This listing of external web resources is provided solely to facilitate academic study and research, and promote fruitful dialogue. The views expressed therein are solely of the author(s) of those websites and are not necessarily those of the instructor, the Theology Department, or Xavier University.





  1. New York Times on Religion
  2. Theodicy in World Religions


    New York Times Articles on Religion and Belief
    New York Times articles on Buddhism
    New York Times Articles on Christians and Christianity
    New York Times Articles on Jews and Judaism
    New York Times articles on Hinduism
    New York Times Articles on Islam

    New York Times Articles on Migration, Immigration & Refugees
    New York Times Articles on Immigrants and Religion

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    Faith Divides the Survivors and It Unites Them, Too (New York Times, 12 January 2005).
    Why Bad Things Happen: How different religions view the reasons for undeserved human suffering. By Ellen Leventry (BeliefNet)
    Is God Omnipotent? Surprising answers from the world's religions. (BeliefNet)
    Was God in this Disaster? By Rodger Kamenetz (BeliefNet)
    The Consolation of Karma. Buddhist scholar Robert Thurman talks about how suffering, even through the tsunami disaster, can offer a karmic advantage.
    The Karma of Misfortune. Arvind Sharma explains theodicy from a Hindu perspective.
    Creator or Architect? Arvind Sharma on Hinduism's understanding of God's omnipotence and why catastrophes like Hurricane Katrina occur.
    Why God Limits His Own Power. Rabbi Irving Greenberg on What role does God play in human calamity, and why does an all-powerful, benevolent being allow suffering?
    Repentance After Disaster. Rabbi Avi Shafran insists that the Tsunami was an 'act of G-d,' and therefore deserves a response from us that involves more than making a donation.
    Katrina: Not God's Wrath--or His Will. Tony Campolo discussing the Evangelical Christian perspective on theodicy.
    When Disaster Strikes, Who Can Be Saved? One Christian View. New Testament Scholar, Ben Witherington III outlines an Evangelical Christian understanding of theodicy.

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A good faith effort has been made to comply with US copyright law. This does not mean that none of the materials used in this course website is copyright protected, but that the "fair use" clause of US Copyright Law has been adhered to. In particular, any copyright material used here is (a) not used for commercial gain and used exclusively for educational purposes; and (b) used in limited amounts in comparison to the published source. The relevant provision (section 107) of the U.S. Copyright Act is reproduced below:

Section 107: Limitations on exclusive rights: Fair Use
Notwithstanding the provisions of section 106, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phone records or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use, the factors to be considered shall include:
(1) The purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes;
(2) the nature of the copyrighted work;
(3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and
(4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work. (added pub. l 94-553, Title I, 101, Oct 19, 1976, 90 Stat 2546).

Revision 2.0.0001. Originally created: 15 March 2008. Last updated: 25 March 2009.
© Copyright Jonathan Y. Tan, 2009. All rights reserved.